Extracts from the Srimad Bhagavatam


.... continued

XX ... The Three Paths

Uddhava submits that the Lord’s word (the Veda) is full of discrimination between merits and demerits; between good action and bad action; between a higher and a lower varna, a higher and lower ashrama; between what to do and what to refrain from doing by gods, ancestries and men in order to reach Emancipation, so that His forbidding him now from distinguishing between good and bad is a great puzzle, indeed, to him.

Krishna answers:

“In order to lead men to the highest good, three methods of self-discipline have been taught by Me. They are Jnana Yoga, the path of Knowledge (or investigations), Karma Yoga, the path of Action, and Bhakti Yoga, the path of Devotion. The first suits best him who has lost all taste for worldly action, considering it to be the source of all misery, whereas to him who thirsts after fulfilment of desires through action, Karma Yoga brings the desired end. The path of devotion is good for him who is neither disgusted with sense pleasures nor inordinately attached to them, and who, by some good fortune, loves to hear My stories and chant My name. So long as one clings to worldly pleasure and has not developed devotion, he should perform his duties according to the injunctions of the Scriptures. He who worships Me through sacrifice with desire for its fruits, O Uddhava, goes neither to heaven nor to the nether regions, but continues to take a human body and follow the straight course, abstaining from sins and purging himself from impurities till he attains Jnana (Supreme Knowledge) and devotion to Me. It is for this very purpose that the denizens of heaven, like those of hell, aspire to take birth in this world, where alone Jnana is attained. The wise should long neither for heaven nor for hell, nor should they seek to perpetuate this body, attachment to which is bound to lead them astray, but should strive for Liberation through it before it is cut down by death, like the intelligent bird who escapes to freedom betimes before the tree in which he has built his nest falls by the woodcutter’s axe. He who is alert enough to notice his life getting shorter by every day and every night that passes, will lose no time in giving up his attachment to the body and all its activities. He truly commits suicide who does not endeavour to cross the dark sea of ignorance and transmigration whilst he possesses this sea-worthy boat, the body, which is most difficult to obtain, the guru being its pilot and I, the favourable wind, to take it safely to port.

“Full of renunciation and repugnance for action and its fruits, the seeker should constantly practise concentration, and should be always alert to bring back the mind when it strays and breaks loose from his grasp by pleasing contrivances. He should intently watch its movements and, using his reason enforced by a sattvic (purified) intellect, he should bring it under subjection, as he would an unbroken horse by first conciliating it. This way of taming the mind is considered to be the highest yoga.

“In his meditation he should reflect on the ultimate principles and the process of creation as taught by the Sankhya, and dwell again and again on the teaching of the guru in order to claim the modification of the mind. He should also with a sharp intellect inquire into the identity of the jiva with the Supreme Self. Should the yogi by mistake commit an undesirable act he must endeavour to counteract it by yoga alone (take to more intensive meditation and reflection), and by no other means; for adherence to one’s sadhana is highly virtuous. The distinction made between virtues and sins (merits and demerits) have the one purpose, first to dispose of impure actions and then of attachment to all actions, which, after all aim at sensuous enjoyments.

“All the desires which are rooted in the heart of the sage who worships Me by the yoga of devotion gradually wilt away and, when he realises Me, the knot of ignorance which is lodged in his heart breaks, destroying all his doubts as well as the unexhausted stock of his karma. Thus by the yoga of devotion My devotee gains all that is gained by the other two yogas, by penance, by knowledge, by dispassion, by charitable acts, by pilgrimage. My devotee desires nothing, not even freedom from transmigration if offered to him by Me, for desirelessness is the most direct route to final Emancipation. The discrimination between virtue and sin, good and evil, does not exist for My pious devotee who sees everything with an equal eye, seeing Me, Who stand beyond thought and reason, in it. Those who follow the foregoing paths as delineated by Me will attain My State, which is free from all fear, and which is known by the name of absolute Reality (Brahman).

XXI ... Ritualistic Heaven Glamorous

“But those who do not take to any of these three paths and seek the trifling pleasure for which their restless senses crave are bound to suffer transmigration. Virtue and sin, good and evil, purity and impurity, Varna, ashrama, names and forms, are all invented by the Vedas to help men to attain their purpose in life, namely, kama, artha, dharma and moksha. From the wrong apprehension of the true nature of an object springs attachment for it, from attachment springs desire, from desire quarrels, from quarrels anger, which completely perverts the judgement. Judgement perverted, the purpose of life is defeated, making the sentient to resemble the insentient. The reward of heaven promised by the Vedas for the ritualistic worship is not blessedness in itself, but is calculated to create a taste for worship as an introduction to the subject of the final Liberation, even as the promise of sweets induces a child to take its dose of medicine.

Ignorant of this purpose of the ritualism as intended by the Vedas, the extrovert interpret this promise of its fruits literally. The knowing Rishis do not make this mistake. Clinging to the senses, the misguided mistake the pleasures of heaven as the highest reward and become excessively attached to the path of smoke (fire of sacrifice and ritual), which disqualifies them from the knowledge of the Self. To gratify their flesh they remain blind to the perception of Me in their hearts, like the eyes that are blinded by mist are incapable of seeing the things which are very close to them. They fancy heaven to be real and, so, they thirst after it, not knowing it to be as unreal as a dream that is pleasing to the eye and the ear. Abandoning Me, the Real, they spend all their earnings on sacrifices, like merchants who stake their fortunes in hopes of greater profits. Rooted in the gunas they worship Indra and the other gods who, like them, are sunk in the gunas, and not Me, Who stand beyond the gunas, entertaining the foolish notions that after staying in heaven and sport to their hearts’ content till the end of their celestial life, they will return to the earth as noble and wealthy householders. In their arrogant egotism they do not like to hear anything which refers to Me, contented as they are with the glamorous prospects held out to them by the Scriptures.

“The three divisions of the Veda are really meant to convey the truth that Brahman, the Supreme Reality, is the Self of all. The Vedic texts say things which are not what they appear to be on the surface: they are thus most difficult to understand, being as vast and as unfathomable as the ocean. Presided over by Me, the infinite Brahman of infinite powers, the Veda is perceived by the wise as Anahata sound in all beings, like the fibre in a lotus stalk. The true meaning of what it reveals, explains, interrogates and refutes, is known to no one but Me. I am the sacrifice and the sacrificer in the rituals of Karmakanda (the ritualistic part of the Veda), the gods of the Devatakanda and the denied superimpositions of the Jnanakanda - I, the All, and the Cause of All. This is the import of all the Vedas, which affirms that the diversity is illusory, having no existence whatsoever.”

XXII - XXIII ... Illusion of The Categories

Uddhava submits that the enumeration of the categories (tattvas or principles) by various authorities are very confusing and do not tally with one another. “Yourself, O Lord of the universe,” he said, “have lately mentioned them to be twenty-eight (p. 321 including the three gunas). Others have placed them variously at twenty-six, twenty-five, sixteen, even only seven, four, eleven, etc. Be pleased, O eternal Master, to say which of these figures is the right one.”

The Lord answers:

“All the sages are right, for each tattva includes all the others. What theory is not possible to maintain if it is based only on My Illusion? The disputes of the Rishis arise from the modification of My Maya - the gunas - which is very difficult to overcome. From the disturbance of the gunas arise their disproportionate combinations which form the diversity of which the sages speak and which is the subject of their controversy. But when Sama (mind control) and Dama (sense control) are achieved, the diversity melts away, and so does the controversy. The number of categories that make up one or the other, differs according to which tattva the speaker takes for cause or effect, so that it is appropriate to accept everything that all the disputants say, each being right from his own angle of vision. One authority, for example, argues that in the jiva, which is invested with beginningless nescience, the realisation of the Self cannot arise by itself, so that there must be another person who is perfect in the knowledge of Truth to impart it. This is the Guru or God, whom this authority adds as the twenty-sixth principle. But actually there is no difference between the individual and God (both being pure consciousness), so that the twenty-sixth principle is superfluous, realisation being the outcome of sattva which is prakriti, and not a quality of the Purusha (the jiva’s essential nature or God), and so on. Thus all the different enumeration of the categories are right, each having its own peculiar rational support.”

Uddhava remarks:

“If Purusha and Prakriti are different by nature, then why do they appear interdependent; Purusha manifesting only through Prakriti (the body), and the body always standing for Purusha, as one’s own self. Be pleased, O Omniscient One, to clear this confusion from my mind, since not only knowledge proceeds from You, but also the veiling of knowledge (doubt and confusion) by Your Maya.”

Sri Krishna answers:

“The distinction between Purusha and Prakriti is radical, O beloved. That which undergoes change owes its existence to the disproportionate combination of the three gunas among themselves, which are none other than My Maya, which creates the notion of differences. Atman being the cause of all this (the source of the gunas) is separate from them. The doubt that the self-luminous Self exists apart from the body or not does not cease so long as realisation of it is not achieved, and so long as men turn their minds away from Me, their real Self.”

Thinking about those who turn their faces from the Lord and who have to pass from one life to another according to their actions, Uddhava asks how they, as the Self, which is actionless, birthless and deathless, can act, be born and die.

The Lord answers:

“The trouble lies with the mind which perceives desirable objects through the senses, gathers impressions of them, and retains them as tendencies, forming the seeds for the next body and its destiny (karma). It travels from one body to another, dragging the soul with it. As the man who, getting impressed by the singing and dancing of others, tries to imitate them, so does the soul imitate the movements of the body on the prompting of the intellect, though in itself it is actionless. The activities of the body are reflected in the Self in the same way as the trees on the edge of a pool are reflected in the water. The intellect has the tendency to exalt the objects of sense by ascribing to them qualities which they do not actually possess but which emanate from its own self, like the rotation of the earth which is seen by a revolving eye. As our dream experiences are false so are our waking experiences and our identification of the body with the Self. Although pleasure and pain do not belong to the Self, they do not cease for him who dwells on them, anymore than dream pleasure and pain cease for him who continues to dream.

“Therefore, O Uddhava, do not trust the deceiving senses. He who is bent upon the attainment of blessedness should lift himself by his own strength, whether scorned, spat upon, or harassed in every way, or deprived of his livelihood by the wicked.”

Uddhava said:

“Such outrages, O Lord of the universe, are more difficult to bear even by men of wisdom, Prakriti (nature) being too powerful to conquer.”

Krishna replied that there was indeed “no such perfect saint in the world as can keep himself unaffected by the hard words of the wicked. The arrows that pierce the vitals are not so painful as the cruel words that pierce the soul: these rankle and torment.

Then He told the story of the miserly Brahmin who traded and amassed a vast wealth, yet deprived himself and his family of even the necessities of life, and who eventually was reduced to extreme penury, which induced him to turn a recluse and start an investigation into the nature of the body and the soul. But the people did not leave him in peace: they took to ridicule his past miserliness and subjected him to all sorts of indignities, which he bore with fortitude, having been awakened to the truth of the immortality of his soul and the illusoriness of the world. He thus managed to raise himself from the depressed state in which he had fallen, by his own spiritual strength and reasoning power.

XXIV ... The Sankhya Doctrine

Sri Krishna now turns to expound the Sankhya system as taught by the ancient seers, which rids one of the delusion of happiness and misery consequent upon the notion of diversity. He says:

“Before the Satya yuga there was a single, undifferentiated, infinite, absolute Substance - Brahman - which can be neither conceived nor described. Brahman then assumed a dual form, namely, Maya (illusory existence), and that in which it is reflected (the jiva or intelligence that perceives it). The former is the well-known prakriti (matter or gunas), which consists of cause and effect, and the latter is pure consciousness, or Purusha (Person or Self). When I disturbed the equilibrium of prakriti the three groups of qualities emerged (sattva, rajas and tamas), giving rise, by their disproportionate combination among themselves, to Sutra (cosmic activity) and Mahat (cosmic intelligence). From the modification of the latter rose the deceptive ahankara (the cosmic ego) which caused the jivas to identify themselves with the bodies made available to them by their past actions and tendencies. Ahankara was of three types - sattvic, rajasic and tamasic - which together evolved all the gods who preside over them. Impelled by Me, the categories joined together and formed the Cosmic Ego, My playground, which I entered as Narayana the Second Person, as it lay on the primeval waters.

“The universe then sprang up as a lotus from My navel, and on it appeared the four-faced Brahma who, with the help of the active rajas and penance, created the three spheres (lokas), namely, Bhurloka, (the earth and the seven subterranean regions -  Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala, and Patala), Bhuwarloka (the aerial region), and Swarloka (heaven, consisting of Swarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and Satyaloka) with their presiding deities. In Swarloka, live the celestials, in Bhurloka humans and animals (in the earth), also asuras, nagas, etc., (in Atala and other subterranean regions), and in Bhuwarloka, siddhas (ancient great Rishis). All these three major spheres are the planes where the entities who are dominated by the gunas work out their destinies. The four higher sub-spheres of Swarloka, namely, Maharloka and above, are the abode of those who practise spiritual disciplines, according to the degrees of their attainments. The highest of them, Satyaloka, is the abode of Brahma, hence it is also called Brahmaloka. Beyond all these is My own sphere, Vaikuntha, which is exclusively reserved for My own devotees. From the highest to the lowest this creation is nothing but the product of the gunas and moves by Karma of which I, as time, am the Dispenser. As prakriti, I am the matter of all, and, as Purusha (spirit), I pervade all. As the beginning, the middle and the end of all, I alone am real. As in the creation each category emerges from the preceding one (Myself - Brahman - being the primal substance), so at the dissolution each merges back again into its predecessor until everything merges once again in the Unmanifest (prakriti), and then into Me. Investigations into these processes of involution and evolution bring the seeker indubitably to their Final Cause Myself Who will shine like the sun dispelling the darkness of ignorance.

XXV - XXVI ... The Characteristics of the Gunas

“Now, O precious Uddhava, I shall explain how each particular guna affects men’s moral nature, independently of the others.

Mind and sense control, forbearance, sound judgement, truthfulness, benevolence, clear memory, contentment, abstemiousness, belief in God and in life eternal, modesty, liberality, abstinence from prohibited acts are the effects of sattva.

Craving for sensuous pleasures, arrogance, passion, desire for action, obstinacy, discontent, hankering after blessings (from gods and men), discrimination between the interest of oneself and that of others, lust, garrulousness, love of praise, aggressiveness are the actions of rajas.

The effects of tamas are: intolerance, miserliness, truthlessness, malevolence, ingratitude, hypocrisy, love for discord, grief, despondency, drowsiness, indolence, fear, anger, demanding favours, etc.

“These are the individual characteristics of the gunas, but in practice all the three go together in various proportions, one at one time dominates the others, and another at another time. From the behaviour of men one can easily distinguish the guna which at that moment happens to be prevalent in any of them. Those who take to sattvic actions go higher and higher, to rajasic actions go to the intermediate state, but those who take to tamasic actions go lower and lower even to the inanimate forms of existence. When at the moment of death sattva is predominant, the deceased ascends to heaven; if tamas, he descends to hell, and if rajas is then predominant, he returns to the human fold, but if he has transcended the gunas, he attains to Me alone.

“Worship done to Me without expectation of rewards is sattvic; that done with expectation is rajasic; whereas the one performed with the intention of harming another being is violent, and, thus, tamasic. Knowledge which concerns the absolute Self is sattvic, that which connects the Self with the body is rajasic, whereas the knowledge of irresponsible beings, or that which concerns the natural actions of the body is tamasic, but that which concerns Me transcends the gunas. Dwelling in the forest is sattvic, in the country rajasic, but in a gambling house it is tamasic; whereas living in My temple transcends the gunas.

Whatever is perceived by the senses and thought by the mind is made of the gunas, so are all the states through which the jiva passes. Rajas and tamas can be overcome by sattva, and sattva by sattva itself to destroy even the subtle body of the jiva (see footnote p. 6), leaving the Atma alone dissociated from the gunas and full of Me, the blissful Brahman.
“He who has liberated himself by the yoga of knowledge through a human body, will no longer be attracted by objects of sense, living though he may be in their very midst, knowing them to be illusory. On no account will he consort with unholy people who are dedicated to the gratifications of their sexual instinct, thirst and hunger, which is bound to lead him to the darkness into which the sensualists themselves live, like the seeing man who refuses to be led by the blind.”

XXVII ... Kriya Yoga

Responding to Uddhava’s request for general details of the saguna worship (through images or forms), Sri Krishna begins to say that since ritualism, as given in the Vedas, is of infinite variety to suit the tastes and circumstances of the worshippers and the nature of the fruits expected from them, He will give a brief account of its most salient features and the procedures which the worshipper should follow to make a success of his worship. This consists of three forms: Vedic, Tantric, and the combination of both. All these are performed by the “twice born” (that is, the man who has been initiated in the sacred thread ceremony and always wears this thread). The worshipper must be full of devotion to the Lord and must start with a bath and consecration of the materials - flowers, rice, etc. - which he intends to use in the worship, using the particular mantra of consecration. In certain worship the bath is repeated again and again, followed by purification of the body by smearing it with certain cleansing materials. He next describes the idol of worship: its form, the materials to be used in its making, its consecration, its daily ablution, the cloth and the jewels by which it is to be decorated, the mantras to be used in each of these processes, the materials to be offered to it, the vessels to be used, the form of prayers to be recited, etc. He ends by saying that the Lord can be worshipped in whatever image or medium for which the worshipper feels reverence and devotion, for, being the soul of the universe, He dwells in all things, and that after endowing the image with divine effulgence by invocation, the worshipper must draw the latter back into the lotus of his own heart, where the divine flame (of consciousness) perpetually shines.

XXVIII ... Truth is One Only

Recapitulating the teaching of the Absolute, Krishna affirms that considering the existence of only one substance - Paramatman or Supreme Self - manifesting as Purusha and Prakriti, the seeker must desist from praising or condemning the actions and dispositions of others, which will make him fall in the delusion of duality and thus defeat his own purpose of attaining the oneness of the Self. In the world of duality where everything is false, unreal like a mirage, an echo, a reflection, the discrimination between good and bad does not arise, although it somehow affects the jivas. The one substance is both the creator and the created, the protector and the protected, the destroyer and the destroyed. The triputi (triad of percipient, percept, and perception) is the product of illusion, and thus does not exist. The knower of this truth as taught by the Lord, neither extols nor reviles anyone, but goes about unattached like the sun.

Uddhava declares that only two principles are involved in the person who suffers transmigration, soul and body, neither of which is capable of rebirth. The latter, he argues, disintegrates at death, and stands no chance of revival; the former is deathless, and, therefore, likewise cannot be reborn. Yet births and deaths are real. Who is it, he asks Krishna, who undergoes them (if neither the body nor the soul is reborn)?

The Lord answers:

Notwithstanding the fact that the phenomena do not at all exist, yet so long as the contact between the unillumined jiva and the senses continues, transmigration does not cease. So long as the dreamer continues to be deluded by the dream objects, he continues to suffer dream sorrow, although this does not exist (but as sensations in him), and ceases when he becomes enlightened on waking. Grief, fear, birth and death affect the deluded part of the dreamer, the ego, and not his being or Self. True knowledge consists in distinguishing the Self, which is real, from the not-Self, which is unreal. By the means spoken of before and by the Grace of a perfect Master, this distinction is clearly perceived, and the body is completely rejected as the non-Self. Just as space is not affected by the elements: fire, water, earth, etc., of which it is the container, so is the imperishable, all-containing Being not affected by the gunas. Efforts must be made to shun the not-Self until supreme bhakti cuts down rajas, the active qualities which are responsible for the illusion. Just as the disease that has not been radically cured is likely to recur again and again and afflicts its sufferer, so does the mind that teems with libidinous and karmic propensities bring about the fall of him who has not attained perfection in yoga (full Jnana). Imperfect yogis who fall from the path due to relationship with a family, disciples, etc., will in a future life, resume their yogic efforts at the point of interruption of their present endeavours, but will never take again to action. The unregenerate perform action till the last moment of their life, and are paid back in transient pleasure and pain, but the regenerate, though seated in a body remain actionless, their thirst for enjoyment having been slaked by the bliss of Self-realisation. Being permanently established in the Self, they take no heed of the actions of the body, nor do they take for real the objects that fall within the ranges of their perception, no more than an awakened man concedes reality to the objects he has perceived in a dream. The body which has so far been identified with one’s own Self, dear Uddhava, and which is actually the product of the gunas and karma, now completely disappears in the light of Self-knowledge: not so the Self which can be neither perceived nor rejected (for the repudiator would still be the sentient Self itself, which remains as the absolute residuum). Just as the light of the sun dispels the darkness from the eye and reveals what has already been present but unseen, so does the realisation of Me dispel the darkness of the mind and reveal the Self, which has all along been invisibly present as the source of all experiences, the senses and speech, and which is self-luminous, beyond the reach of reason, words, births, time and space. The notion of differences in the absolute Self is entirely a delusion, for none exists other than itself. The claim of an irrefutable duality made by some arrogant dualists is utterly senseless.

“There are those who practise sense-control and manage to keep the body strong and youthful and take to the practice of yoga with the view of acquiring siddhis. The wise look askance at them and at their futile endeavour to preserve a body which is as perishable as a fruit on a tree.

XXIX ... Farewell Message to Uddhava

Uddhava submits that the yoga of concentration is extremely difficult to practise, so that many strivers feel disheartened and frustrated when they fail to curb their mental restlessness to attain peace. He asks if there is an alternative to it.

The Lord advises the surrender of the fruits of action to Him and the maintaining of a ceaseless thought of Him. Other helps are: dwelling in holy environments and in the company of saints, arranging processions and meetings to propound His glory, habituating oneself to see Him, the Perfect, within and without oneself and all creatures, like the all-pervading ether. The person who treats all alike and honours and respects them all, as he does the Lord Himself, Krishna avers, is free from hatred, envy, malice, and self-conceit. Believing the Lord to be in all beings, he should prostrate before even a dog, a pariah, a cow, or a donkey until the conviction that all these are actually Himself takes a firm hold of him, taking no notice of the carping, and forgetting the body and the sense of shame and humiliation. This habit of looking upon all beings as the Lord Himself in thought, deed and word, is the best of all disciplines. No effort, however small, made in His worship is wasted, for it is free from desire and unaffected by the gunas. Any work surrendered to Him is righteous, even so insignificant an act as crying or running away in fear or grief.

The Lord concludes:

“The foregoing exposition covers the entire range of Vedantic thought, which I have again and again been propounding as clearly as has been possible. He who comprehends it fully will have all his doubts dispelled, and himself will be in a fair way close to the realisation of the transcendent Brahman. Of My own accord I will reveal Myself to the teacher who will widely preach it; and he who will daily recite it to purify others, will himself be purified. Likewise, he who will daily listen to it with reverence will be considered as practising supreme devotion to Me, and will not be bound to perform action.
“You should not, friend Uddhava, impart this teaching of Mine to a hypocrite, an unbeliever, a scamp, or one who is given to wicked ways, or is not My devotee, but to one who is free from these faults, pious, and has a genuine devotion to Me, be he a Sudra or a woman. Having known this there remains nothing more for one to know, nothing more to enjoy. To him who has drunk the sweet nectar of immortality, no other drink tastes well. I am to you, dear Uddhava, all the good that can be derived from knowledge, from the practice of dharma, from Yoga, from business undertakings and from regal powers. Relinquishing all duties in your dedication to Myself, you will enjoy My special favour and will attain immortality in Me.”

Sri Suka continues:

Having intently listened to the Lord’s expositions till the end, Uddhava, with a heart brimming with love, stood with joined palms before the Master, tears pouring from his eyes and throat so choked with emotion that for a long time he could not speak. Then prostrating himself before Him, he said:

“The thick darkness which had enveloped me has been dispelled by the splendour of Your teaching, O Master. The torch of wisdom which Your powerful Maya had snatched from me, has now been restored to me by You, O compassionate Krishna. Salutations to You, Great Yogin, pray so direct me, who am fallen at Your feet, that an unceasing love may continue to abide in my heart for You.”

The Lord answered:

“Proceed to My hermitage in Badari and shake off your impurities by bathing in the water of the Ganges which has been sanctified by the touch of My feet. Clothe yourself in bark of trees, live on the yields of the forests, control your mind and senses, and cease longing for worldly comforts. Dwell again and again on what you have heard from Me with a calm mind, occupying your time with what you know will please Me, and you will certainly attain to Me.”

In obedience to the Lord’s command, Uddhava prepared to bid Him farewell. He went round Him, fell at His feet, and bathed them with the tears which welled out of his sorrowful heart, and, bowing to Him again and again, departed, carrying on his head the wooden sandals which the compassionate Krishna had used on His feet and had gifted to him as a token of remembrance and love. Reaching Badarikashrama, Uddhava followed strictly the Master’s instructions and attained the State of Lord Hari Himself, as had been promised by Him.

He, who, with genuine faith, tastes ever so little of this wisdom which has been churned out of the ocean of nectar - the Upanishads - and taught to Uddhava by Lord Krishna in person, will attain Release himself, as well as those who seek his company.

These pages will be supplemented from time to time with further extracts from important works.

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